Avril 1994, année du cinquantième anniversaire de l’écrasement de la barbarie nazie, une partie de l’humanité est massacrée à l’arme blanche sous les yeux de la communauté internationale. Il ne s’agissait pas de luttes tribales, ni d’affrontements « interethniques », mais de l’extermination délibérée d’hommes, de femmes et d’enfants coupables seulement d’être ce qu’ils étaient, les Tutsis du Rwanda. Cette journée du 7 Avril 1994 est une journée comme une autre pour la plupart des gens de la population mondiale. Mais dans un petit pays au cœur de l’Afrique, au Rwanda, tous les diables ont quitté l’enfer pour s’emparer du Rwanda. C’est le commencement du Génocide contre les Tutsis, le plus meurtrier et le plus rapide qu’a connu le XXième siècle, après le ‘’Never Again’’ des Nations Unis. Plus de 800 000 Rwandais, essentiellement des Tutsis, mais également des Hutus modérés sont massacrés et exterminés par leurs compatriotes Hutus dans une boucherie organisée par l’État Rwandais en trois mois seulement. Ce carnage se fait en direct au vu et au su de la communauté internationale et de l’humanité entière.
The Genocide is a crime against Humanity with the aim of exterminating intentionally, all or in part and as such, a group national, ethnic or religious. It is intentional and therefore highly premeditated as it is designed by a state that takes the financial, logistical, media and human resources, etc.
The Genocide perpetrated against the Tutsi in 1994 in Rwanda was planned by the Hutu extremists who were in power at the time. They mobilized, trained and provided weapons to the Hutu Population who then started using them against the Tutsi. They were assisted in the work by the regular forces, the army, the communal police, the irregular forces and the militiamen Interahamwe.
To understand the reasons as to why the Hutu tried to exterminate the Tutsi, We must go back to the colonial period to probe the origin of the Hutu-Tutsi conflict that reached its peak in 1994 with a genocide that cost more than a million lives among the Tutsi population. Pre-colonial to post-colonial Rwanda
In Larousse the word '' Ethnic '' is defined as follows: "Human group that has a homogeneous family, economic and social structure, and whose unity is based on a community of language, culture and group consciousness". In Rwanda, before the colonial period, Tutsis and Hutus lived in Rwanda indiscriminately, and all were found in about fifteen clans. They all obeyed one and the same kingUmwami-, Worshiped one GodImana-All Spoke one, same LanguageKinyarwanda- and shared one culture. They lived together on the same territory.In short, Hutu and Tutsi were one and the same people within the same nation, and for a millennium there were no ethnic groups.
It is the Belgian colonizer, inspired by racist theories about race inequality then in vogue in Europe, which made Tutsis and Hutus distinct ethnic groups.The Belgian colonial administration organized a census accompanied by the granting of identity cards. The problem is that this census had a racial connotation.
By improvising ethnologist, the Belgian measures the size of the nose, the shape of the skull, the corpulence, and the nature of the hair of Rwandan etc. Then he decided who is Hutu, who is Tutsi, and engraved the result of his "discoveries" in an ethnic identity card!
But the Story does not end there, In fact it's just the beginning. The Belgian then improvised as a historian specialized in migratory movements and told the Rwandan the story of his distant origins. In the Tutsi, Caucasian descent is revealed, like the Semites and the Indo-Europeans, and emphasizes that, in fact, the Tutsis are true whites with black skin. "His conformation brings him closer to the White man plus que du Nègre, si bien que l’on pourrait dire, sans exagérer, qu’il est un Européen sous une black skin There lies one of the roots of racism.»
According to author Olivier Barlet, "Tutsi are qualified as ‘NWhite Negroes’, attributing to them a distant white ancestor. " The Belgian colonizer thus invented different origins and qualities for Rwandans, then inoculated Hutus with an inferiority complex, which they subsequently attempted a final cure in a bloodbath. Was is it in the goal ofdivide and rule or it was racism exported from Europe? Certainly, one day, history will tell us.
The end that justifies the means
In political philosophy all means are good, provided they lead to the goal. "It's the end that justifies the means. This proverb attributed to Nicholas Machiavelli applies very well to the period of decolonization of Rwanda which coincided with the abolition of the monarchy and the establishment of a republic. At that time, a party was born and its name leaves no ambiguity as to its ethnist aims: Party for the Emancipation of Hutu, PARMEHUTU. Quoting Jean-Paul Gouteux, Maia Morel notes that "the founding text of the PARMEHUTU party Parmehutu, written by two white fathers translates the biological racism of their Western authors ". All means are good for taking power, including genocide. Indeed, the Parmehutu Party took power in 1961 in a bloodbath; Hundreds of thousands of Tutsis were killed and hundreds of thousands more took to exile.
The Final Solution to the Tutsi question.
From their exile in countries bordering Rwanda, Tutsi refugees tried to return to the fold by force of arms, no mechanism being in place to allow a peaceful return. On the sidelines of each attack by Tutsi refugees, the Hutu government carried out bloody reprisals against Tutsi civilians whom it accused of supporting the rebels it designated.
In March 1964, President Gregoire Kayibanda sent an open letter to Tutsi refugees saying: "Assuming you can not take Kigali by storm, how do you measure the chaos of which you would be the first victims? I do not insist: you guessed it, otherwise you would not act as minions and desperate! You say it between you: "It would be the total and hasty end of the Tutsi race". What is genocide?
The rebel attacks stopped in 1967 to resume almost 25 years later, on October 1, 1990. Meanwhile, the water sank under the bridge, and the blood of the Tutsi also flowed. In 1973, another pogrom against the Tutsi served as a pretext for General Habyarimana to seize power by a military coup. The new tenant of the Rwandan presidency multiplies pacifist speeches and slogans, but continues the segregationist policy of his predecessor Grégoire Kayibanda.
Thus, in April 1994, after the crash of the plane of President Juvenal Habyalimana, April 6, 1994, which had just signed peace agreements with the rebels of the RPF, it is the final solution, One of the organizers of the Genocide, Theoneste Bagosora said: '' I will prepare the apocalypse ''. And indeed it was the apocalypse, the Tutsis are killed under the total indifference of the international community.
Several scholars have advanced theories to explain this human madness: ethnic antagonist, revenge acts of another era, self-defense, fear ...... Nothing could explain this project of destruction of a human being, that is the genocide perpetrated against Tutsis, just as one could never advance a theory to justify the Holocaust.
References for more information on the Genocide against Tutsis.